pipefishes and ghost pipefishes

The pipefishes and ghost pipefishes are among the closest relatives to seahorses and seadragons. Similar to those groups, these fishes have elongated snouts for capturing small prey and are extremely well-camouflaged.

The elongated body of pipefishes is thought to be an ancestral trait, with seahorses having evolved their upright position after branching off from their common pipefish-like ancestors. The horizontally-swimming pipefishes are the most diverse of the Syngnathids, with over 50 genera and 225 species.  They are present globally everywhere but the poles, with populations ranging from Alaska to Tierra del Fuego and New Zealand to Norway.

The ghost pipefishes are named as such because they are so showy and bizarre as to be almost ghost-like.  The five species that make up the genus Solenostomus are elaborately decorated for camouflage from predators. Unlike their pipefish brethren, the female ghost pipefish uses elongated fins to brood young until they are ready to hatch.

Learn more about these interesting species by checking out the profiles below.

NOTE: This list is a work in progress and will be expanded and updated.

IUCN Red List key: EX
=Extinct EW=Extinct in the Wild CR=Critically Endangered EN=Endangered VU=Vulnerable NT=Near Threatened LC=Least Concern DD=Data Deficient NE=Not Evaluated (Click here for a full explanation of IUCN Red List categories.) A note on ‘Data Deficient’ species: Species that are assessed as ‘Data Deficient’ are deemed to have insufficient information known about them to carry out a proper conservation assessment. Although such species are not assessed as threatened, we may find out that they in fact are, once enough data is obtained. 

Solenostomidae (Ghost pipefishes)

Photo Scientific Name Common Name IUCN Red List Status Profile Range
h-waleananus Solenostomus armatus
Weber, 1913
Armoured Ghost pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Western Pacific
Solenostomus cyanopterus S. cyanopterus
Bleeker, 1854
Robust Ghost pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Indo-Pacific
Solenostomus halimeda S. halimeda
Orr, Fritzsche & Randall, 2002
Halimeda Ghost pipefish DD logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Indo-Pacific
Solenostomus paradoxus S. paradoxus
(Pallas, 1770)
Ornate Ghost pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Indo-West Pacific

Syngnathidae (Pipehorses)

Photo Scientific Name Common Name IUCN Red List Status Profile Range
h-waleananus Acentronura australe
Waite & Hale, 1921
Southern little pipehorse DD logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Eastern Indian Ocean
Acentronura dendritica_Mary-Win_O'Brien_GSOTW A. dendritica
(Barbour, 1905)
West Altantic
Pygmy pipehorse
LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Western Atlantic
h-waleananus A. gracilissima
(Temminck & Schlegel, 1850)
Graceful pipehorse LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Western Pacific
h-waleananus A. larsonae
Dawson, 1984
Larson's pipehorse DD logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Eastern Indian Ocean
Acentronura_lumnitzeri_Erik_Schlogl_iNat A. lumnitzeri
(Kuiter, 2004)
Sydney's Pygmy pipehorse LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Southwestern Pacific
Acentronura tentaculata_Thomas_Vanderschoot_iNat A. tentaculata
Gunther, 1870
Shortpouch Pygmy pipehorse LC logo_eolGBIFurl Indo-West Pacific
lhimarinepark, iNaturalist Solegnathus dunckeri
Whitley, 1927
Duncker's pipehorse DD logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Western Pacific
h-waleananus S. hardwickii
(Gray, 1830)
Hardwicke's pipehorse DD logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Western Indian Ocean,
Western Pacific
h-waleananus S. lettiensis
Bleeker, 1860
Günther's pipehorse DD logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Eastern Indian Ocean
Loren Mariani, iNaturalist S. robustus
McCulloch, 1911
Robust pipehorse LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Eastern Indian Ocean
lachlan_fetterplace, iNaturalist S. spinosissimus
(Günther, 1870)
Spiny pipehorse DD logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Southwest Pacific

Syngnathidae (Pipefishes)

Photo Scientific Name Common Name IUCN Red List Status Profile Range
h-waleananus Anarchopterus criniger
(Bean & Dresel, 1884)
Fringed pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Western Atlantic
h-waleananus A. tectus
(Dawson, 1978)
Insular pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Western Atlantic
h-waleananus Apterygocampus epinnulatus Weber, 1913 Briareum pipefish DD logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Western
Central Pacific
h-waleananus Bhanotia fasciolata
(Dumeril, 1870)
Corrugated pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Indo-Pacific
h-waleananus B. nuda
Dawson, 1978
Naked pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Western
Central Pacific
h-waleananus B. pauciradiata
Allen & Kuiter, 1995
Few-rayed pipefish DD logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Western
Central Pacific
h-waleananus Bryx analicarens
(Duncker, 1915)
Pink pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Indian Ocean
h-waleananus B. dunckeri
(Metzelaar, 1919)
American pugnose pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Western Atlantic
h-waleananus B. randalli
(Herald, 1965)
Ocellated pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Western Atlantic
h-waleananus B. veleronis
Herald, 1940
Offshore pipefish DD logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Eastern Pacific
h-waleananus Bulbonaricus brauni
(Dawson & Allen, 1978)
Pugheaded pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Indo-Pacific
h-waleananus B. brucei
Dawson, 1984
DD logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Western
Indo-Pacific
h-waleananus B. davaoensis
(Herald, 1953)
Davao pughead pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Western
Indo-Pacific
David Muirhead, iNaturalist Campichthys galei
(Duncker, 1909)
Gale's pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Eastern Indian
Ocean, Australia
h-waleananus C. nanus
Dawson, 1977
DD logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Western
Indian Ocean
h-waleananus C. tricarinatus
Dawson, 1977
Three-keel pipefish DD logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Western Central
Pacific, Australia
Ian Banks, iNaturalist C. tryoni
(Ogilby, 1890)
Tryon's pipefish DD logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Western Central
Pacific, Australia
h-waleananus Choeroichthys brachysoma
(Bleeker, 1855)
Short Bodied pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Indo-Pacific, Red Sea
h-waleananus C. cinctus
Dawson, 1976
Barred Shortbody pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Western Pacific
h-waleananus C. latispinosus
Dawson, 1978
Muiron Islands pipefish DD logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Eastern Indian Ocean, Western Australia
h-waleananus C. sculptus
(Günther, 1870)
Sculptured pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Indo-Pacific
h-waleananus C. smithi
Dawson, 1976
Shortfin pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Western Indian Ocean
h-waleananus C. suillus
Whitley, 1951
Barred Short-bodied pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Western Central Pacific
Nigel Marsh, iNaturalist Corythoichthys amplexus
Dawson & Randall, 1975
Brown-banded pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Indo-West Pacific
Mark Rosenstein, iNaturalist C. benedetto
Allen & Erdmann, 2008
Benedetto's pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Indo-West Pacific
Klaus Stiefel, iNaturalist C. flavofasciatus
(Rüppell, 1838)
Network pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Indo-Pacific,
Red Sea
Francesco Ricciardi, iNaturalist C. haematopterus
(Bleeker, 1851)
Bloodspot pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Indo-Pacific
h-waleananus C. insularis
Dawson, 1977
LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Western Indian Ocean
Carmelo López Abad, iNaturlist C. intestinalis
(Ramsay, 1881)
Banded pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Western Central Pacific
Mark Rosenstein, iNaturalist C. nigripectus
Herald, 1953
Black-breasted pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Indo-Pacific
Terence Zahner, iNaturalist C. ocellatus
Herald, 1953
Ocellated pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Western Central Pacific
h-waleananus C. paxtoni
Dawson, 1977
Paxton's pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Western Pacific
Tony Shih, iNaturalist C. polynotatus
Dawson, 1977
Many-spotted pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Western Central Pacific
Nils Rädecker, iNaturalist C. schultzi
Herald, 1953
Schultz's pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Indo-Pacific
Terence Zahner, iNaturalist Cosmocampus albirostris
(Kaup, 1856)
White-nose pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Western Atlantic
h-waleananus C. arctus
(Jenkins & Evermann, 1889)
Snubnose pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Eastern Pacific
h-waleananus C. balli
(Fowler, 1925)
Ball's pipefish VU logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Eastern Central Pacific
h-waleananus C. banneri
(Herald & Randall, 1972)
Banner's pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Indo-West Pacific
h-waleananus C. brachycephalus
(Poey, 1868)
American crested pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Western Atlantic
h-waleananus C. darrosanus
(Dawson & Randall, 1975)
D'Arros pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Indo-West Pacific
Mark Rosenstein, iNaturalist C. elucens
(Poey, 1868)
Short-fin pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Western Atlantic
h-waleananus C. heraldi
(Fritzsche, 1980)
DD logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl South-east Pacific
h-waleananus C. hildebrandi
(Herald, 1965)
American dwarf pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Western Atlantic
h-waleananus C. howensis
(Whitley, 1948)
Lord Howe pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Indo-Pacific
h-waleananus C. investigatoris
(Hora, 1926)
Investigator pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Indo-West Pacific
Mark Rosenstein, iNaturalist C. maxweberi
(Whitley, 1933)
Maxweber's pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Indo-Pacific
h-waleananus C. profundus
(Herald, 1965)
Deepwater pipefish DD logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Western Atlantic
h-waleananus C. retropinnis
Dawson, 1982
Back-finned pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Eastern Atlantic
Martin Grimm, iNaturalist Doryichthys boaja
(Bleeker, 1850)
Long-snouted pipefish DD logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Asia
h-waleananus D. contiguus
Kottelat, 2000
Pgymy pipefish DD logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Asia
h-waleananus D. deokhatoides
(Bleeker, 1854)
Ruosteneula DD logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Asia
h-waleananus D. heterosoma
(Bleeker, 1851)
DD logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Asia
h-waleananus D. martensii
(Peters, 1868)
Longsnouted pipefish DD logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Asia
h-waleananus Doryrhamphus aurolineatus
Randall & Earle, 1994
DD logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Western Indian Ocean,
Arabian Sea
h-waleananus D. bicarinatus
Dawson, 1981
Narrowstripe pipefish DD logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Western Indian Ocean
Mark Rosenstein, iNaturalist D. excisus
Kaup, 1856
Bluestripe pipefish DD logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Indo-Pacific &
Eastern Pacific
Tony Strazzari, iNaturalist D. janssi
(Herald & Randall, 1972)
Janss' pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Western Central Pacific
Mark Rosenstein, iNaturalist D. japonicus
Araga & Yoshino, 1975
Honshu pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Western Pacific
h-waleananus D. negrosensis
Herre, 1934
Negros pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Western Pacific
David Rolla, iNaturalist Dunckerocampus baldwini
Herald & Randall, 1972
Redstripe pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Indo-Pacific
divemecressi, iNaturalist D. boylei
Kuiter, 1998
Broad-banded pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Indian Ocean, Red Sea
h-waleananus D. chapmani
Herald, 1953
Glowtail pipefish DD logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Southwest Pacific
Klaus Stiefel, iNaturalist D. dactyliophorus
(Bleeker, 1853)
Banded pipefish DD logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Indo-Pacific, Red Sea
h-waleananus D. multiannulatus
(Regan, 1903)
Many-banded pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Western Indian Ocean,
Red Sea
Mark Rosenstein, iNaturalist D. naia
Allen & Kuiter, 2004
Naia pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Pacific Ocean
Rebecca Lloyd, iNaturalist D. pessuliferus
Fowler, 1938
Yellowbanded pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Western Central Pacific, Eastern Indian Ocean
h-waleananus Enneacampus ansorgii
(Boulenger, 1910)
LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Africa
h-waleananus E. kaupi
(Bleeker, 1863)
LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Africa
Bernard Picton, iNaturalist Entelurus aequoreus
(Linnaeaus, 1758)
Snake pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Eastern Atlantic
Tony Strazzari, iNaturalist Festucalex cinctus
(Ramsay, 1882)
Girdled pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl West Pacific
h-waleananus F. erythraeus
(Gilbert, 1905)
Red pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Indo-Pacific
h-waleananus F. gibbsi
Dawson, 1977
Gibbs' pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Western Pacific
h-waleananus F. kulbickii
Fricke, 2004
Kulbicki's pipefish DD logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Western Central Pacific
h-waleananus F. prolixus
Dawson, 1984
DD logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Western Central Pacific
h-waleananus F. rufus
Allen & Erdmann, 2015
Pink pipefish DD logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Western Pacific
h-waleananus F. scalaris
(Günther, 1870)
Ladder pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Eastern Indian Ocean
h-waleananus F. wassi
Dawson, 1977
Wass' pipefish DD logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Western Central Pacific
Gina Maschord, iNaturalist Filicampus tigris
(Castelnau, 1879)
Tiger pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Eastern Indian Ocean
& Western Pacific
mscott, iNaturalist Halicampus boothae
(Whitley, 1964)
Booth's pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Western Indian Ocean
& Western Pacific
Mark Rosenstein, iNaturalist H. brocki
(Herald, 1953)
Brock's pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Western Pacific
Kristin Anderson, iNaturalist H. dunckeri
(Chabanaud, 1929)
Duncker's pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Indo-West Pacific
h-waleananus H. edmondsoni
(Pietschmann, 1928)
Edmondson's pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Eastern Central Pacific
h-waleananus H. grayi
Kaup, 1856
Gray's pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Indo-West Pacific
Blogie Robillo, iNaturalist H. macrorhynchus
Bamber, 1915
Ornate pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Indo-West Pacific
h-waleananus H. marquesensis
Dawson, 1984
LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Eastern Central Pacific
h-waleananus H. mataafae
(Jordan & Seale, 1906)
Samoan pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Indo-Pacific, Red Sea, East Africa
h-waleananus H. nitidus
(Günther, 1873)
Glittering pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Northwest Pacific
h-waleananus H. punctatus
Kamohara, 1952
Starry pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Northwest Pacific
h-waleananus H. spinirostris
Dawson & Allen, 1981
Spinysnout pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Indo-Pacific
h-waleananus H. zavorensis
Dawson, 1984
Zavora pipefish DD logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Western Indian Ocean
Kristin Anderson, iNaturalist Haliichthys taeniophorus
Gray, 1859
Ribboned pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Indo-Pacific
Erik Schlogl, iNaturalist Heraldia nocturna
Paxton, 1975
Upside-down pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Eastern Indian Ocean
h-waleananus Hippichthys albomaculosus
Jenkins & Mailautoka, 2010
DD logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Oceania
WK Cheng, iNaturalist H. cyanospilos
Bleeker, 1854
Bluespeckled pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Indo-Pacific
h-waleananus H. heptagonus
Bleeker, 1849
Reticulated freshwater pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Asia, Africa,
& Oceania
h-waleananus H. parvicarinatus
Dawson, 1978
Short-keel pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Oceania
coenobita, iNaturalist H. penicillus
(Cantor, 1849)
Beady pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Indo-West Pacific
h-waleananus H. spicifer
(Rüppell, 1838)
Bellybarred pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Indo-Pacific
David Muirhead, iNaturalist Histiogamphelus briggsii McCulloch, 1914 Brigg's pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Eastern Indian Ocean
David Muirhead, iNaturalist H. cristatus
(Macleay, 1881)
Macleay's crested pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Eastern Indian Ocean
h-waleananus Hypselognathus horridus
Dawson & Glover, 1982
Prickly pipefish DD logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Eastern Indian Ocean
David Muirhead, iNaturalist H. rostratus
(Waite & Hale, 1921)
Knife-snouted pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Eastern Indian Ocean
Photo Scientific Name Common Name IUCN Red List Status Profile Range
h-waleananus Ichthyocampus carce
(Hamilton, 1822)
Indian freshwater pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Indo-West Pacific
David Muirhead, iNaturalist Kaupus costatus
(Waite & Hale, 1921)
Deep-bodied pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Eastern Indian Ocean
h-waleananus Kimblaeus bassensis
Dawson, 1980
Bass strait pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Eastern Indian Ocean
Francesco Ricciardi, iNaturalist Kyonemichthys rumengani
Gomon, 2007
Thread pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Indo-West Pacific
David Muirhead, iNaturalist Leptoichthys fistularius
Kaup, 1853
Brushtail pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Eastern Indian Ocean
h-waleananus Leptonotus blainvilleanus
(Eydoux & Gervais, 1837)
Deep-bodied pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Southeast Pacific,
Southwest Atlantic
Wellington Underwater Club, iNaturalist L. elevatus
(Hutton, 1872)
High-body pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Southwest Pacific
emr_auckland, iNaturalist L. norae
(Waite, 1910)
Longsnout pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Southwest Pacific
h-waleananus Lissocampus bannwarthi
(Duncker, 1915)
紅海無稜海龍 LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Western Indian Ocean
Glen Whisson, iNaturalist L. caudalis
Waite & Hale, 1921
Australian smooth pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Eastern Indian Ocean
h-waleananus L. fatiloquus
(Whitley, 1943)
Prophet's pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Eastern Indian Ocean
tangatawhenua, iNaturalist L. filum
(Günther, 1870)
Shortsnout pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Southwest Pacific
Sascha Schulz, iNaturalist L. runa
(Whitley, 1931)
Javelin pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Eastern Indian Ocean
h-waleananus L. vincentae
Luzzatto & Estalles, 2019
Patagonian pipefish
stephencoutts, iNaturalist Maroubra perserrata Whitley, 1948 Sawtooth pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Eastern Indian Ocean
Zack, iNaturalist M. yasudai
Dawson, 1983
Orange pipefish DD logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Northwest Pacific
Mark Rosenstein, iNaturalist Micrognathus andersonii
(Bleeker, 1858)
Anderson's pipefish LC logo_eolGBIFurl Indo-Pacific
h-waleananus M. brevicorpus
Fricke, 2004
Short-bodied pipefish DD logo_eolGBIFurl Western Pacific
h-waleananus M. brevirostris
(Rüppell, 1838)
Pygmy pipefish LC logo_eolGBIFurl Western Indian Ocean
Mark Rosenstein, iNaturalist M. crinitus
(Jenyns, 1842)
Banded pipefish LC logo_eolGBIFurl Western Atlantic
h-waleananus M. erugatus
Herald & Dawson, 1974
平滑小頜海龍 DD logo_eolGBIFurl Southwest Atlantic
h-waleananus M. micronotopterus
(Fowler, 1938)
Tidepool pipefish LC logo_eolGBIFurl Western Pacific
h-waleananus M. natans
Dawson, 1982
Offshore pipefish LC logo_eolGBIFurl Western Central Pacific
h-waleananus Microphis argulus
(Peters, 1855)
Flat-nosed pipefish LC logo_eolGBIFurl Western Indian Ocean
Erick Noe Tapia Banda, iNaturalist M. brachyurus
(Bleeker, 1854)
Opossum pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Asia, Oceania,
& Western Atlantic
h-waleananus M. brevidorsalis
(de Beaufort, 1913)
Shortfin pipefish LC logo_eolGBIFurl Asia, Oceania
h-waleananus M. caudocarinatus
(Weber, 1907)
Slender pipefish DD logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Asia
h-waleananus M. cruentus
Dawson & Fourmanoir, 1981
Dumbéa River pipefish DD logo_eolGBIFurl Oceania
h-waleananus M. cuncalus
(Hamilton, 1822)
Crocodile-tooth pipefish LC logo_eolGBIFurl Asia
h-waleananus M. deocata
(Hamilton, 1822)
Deocata pipefish NT logo_eolGBIFurl Asia
h-waleananus M. dunckeri
(Prashad & Mukerji, 1929)
緬甸腹囊海龍 DD logo_eolGBIFurl Asia
h-waleananus M. fluviatilis
(Peters, 1852)
Freshwater pipefish LC logo_eolGBIFurl Africa
h-waleananus M. insularis (Hora, 1925) Andaman pipefish VU logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Asia
h-waleananus M. jagorii
Peters, 1868
Philippine River pipefish DD logo_eolGBIFurl Asia
Mac Lin, iNaturalist M. leiaspis
(Bleeker, 1854)
Barhead pipefish LC logo_eolGBIFurl Africa
h-waleananus M. manadensis
(Bleeker, 1856)
Manado pipefish LC logo_eolGBIFurl Asia, Oceania
h-waleananus M. mento
(Bleeker, 1856)
Red pipefish LC logo_eolGBIFurl Asia
h-waleananus M. ocellatus
(Duncker, 1910)
Oceallated pipefish DD logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Asia
h-waleananus M. pleurostictus
(Peters, 1868)
Luzon River pipefish EN logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Asia
h-waleananus M. retzii
(Bleeker, 1856)
Ragged-tail pipefish LC logo_eolGBIFurl Asia, Oceania
h-waleananus M. spinachioides
(Duncker, 1915)
Spinach pipefish DD logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Oceania
h-waleananus Minyichthys brachyrhinus
(Herald, 1953)
短吻鰓嵴海龍 DD logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Eastern Indian Ocean
h-waleananus M. inusitatus
Dawson, 1983
West Atlantic pipefish DD logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Western Central Atlantic
h-waleananus M. myersi
(Herald & Randall, 1972)
Myers' pipefish LC logo_eolGBIFurl Indo-West Pacific
Alberto Estrada, iNaturalist M. sentus
Dawson, 1982
DD logo_eolGBIFurl Eastern Atlantic
timkarnasuta, iNaturalist Mitotichthys meraculus
(Whitley, 1948)
Western crested pipefish DD logo_eolGBIFurl Eastern Indian Ocean
h-waleananus M. mollisoni
(Scott, 1955)
Mollison's pipefish LC logo_eolGBIFurl Eastern Indian Ocean
h-waleananus M. semistriatus
(Kaup, 1856)
Half-banded pipefish LC logo_eolGBIFurl Eastern Indian Ocean
h-waleananus M. tuckeri
(Scott, 1942)
Tucker's pipefish LC logo_eolGBIFurl Southwest Pacific
Duncan Pritchard, iNaturalist Nannocampus elegans
Smith, 1953
Elegant pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Western Indian Ocean
h-waleananus N. pictus
(Duncker, 1915)
Reef pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Indo-West Pacific
h-waleananus N. subosseus
Günther, 1870
Bony-headed pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Eastern Indian Ocean
h-waleananus N. weberi
Duncker, 1915
Reef-flat pipefish DD logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Western Central Pacific
Julien Renoult, iNaturalist Nerophis lumbriciformis
(Jenyns, 1835)
Worm pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Eastern Atlantic
h-waleananus N. maculatus
Rafinesque, 1810
Spotted pipefish DD logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Eastern Atlantic
h-waleananus N. ophidion
(Linnaeus, 1758)
Straightnose pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Eastern Atlantic
h-waleananus Notiocampus ruber
(Ramsay & Ogilby, 1886)
Red pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Eastern Indian Ocean
h-waleananus Penetopteryx nanus
(Rosén, 1911)
Worm pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Western Central Atlantic
h-waleananus P. taeniocephalus
Lunel, 1881
Oceanic pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Indo-Pacific
h-waleananus Phoxocampus belcheri/em>
(Kaup, 1856)
Rock pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Indo-West Pacific
h-waleananus P. diacanthus
(Schultz, 1943)
Obscure pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Indo-Pacific
h-waleananus P. tetrophthalmus
(Bleeker, 1858)
Trunk-barred pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Western Central Pacific
h-waleananus Pseudophallus elcapitanensis
(Meek & Hildebrand, 1914)
Pez pipa LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Central America
h-waleananus P. mindii
(Meek & Hildebrand, 1923)
Freshwater pipefish DD logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Central & South America
h-waleananus Pseudophallus starksii
(Jordan & Culver, 1895)
Yellowbelly pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Central & South America
Janine Baker, iNaturalist Pugnaso curtirostris
(Castelnau, 1872)
Pug-nosed pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Eastern Indian Ocean
h-waleananus Siokunichthys bentuviai
Clark, 1966
Barred Xenia-pipefish DD logo_eolGBIFurl Western Indian Ocean
h-waleananus S. breviceps
Smith, 1963
Softcoral pipefish DD logo_eolGBIFurl Western Indian Ocean
h-waleananus S. herrei
Herald, 1953
Spotted Xenia-pipefish DD logo_eolGBIFurl indo-West Pacific
Georgina Jones, iNaturalist S. nigrolineatus
Dawson, 1983
Mushroom-coral pipefish DD logo_eolGBIFurl Western Central Pacific
h-waleananus S. southwelli
(Duncker, 1910)
Southwell's pipefish DD logo_eolGBIFurl Western Indian Ocean
h-waleananus S. striatus
Fricke, 2004
New Caledonian soft-coral pipefish DD logo_eolGBIFurl Western Pacific
David Muirhead, iNaturalist Stigmatopora argus
(Richardson, 1840)
Spotted pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Eastern Indian Ocean
sarahmilicich, iNaturalist S. macropterygia
Duméril, 1870
Long-snouted pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Southwest Pacific
David Muirhead, iNaturalist S. narinosa
Browne & Smith, 2007
Southern gulf pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Eastern Indian Ocean
David Muirhead, iNaturalist S. nigra
Kaup, 1856
Wide-bodied pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Indo-West Pacific
Matty Testoni, iNaturalist Stipecampus cristatus
(McCulloch & Waite, 1918)
Ring-backed pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Eastern Indian Ocean
brm85, iNaturalist Syngnathoides biaculeatus
(Bloch, 1785)
Alligator pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Indo-Pacific
Julien Renoult, iNaturalist Syngnathus abaster
Risso, 1827
Black-striped pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Eastern Atlantic
whodden, iNaturalist S. acus
Linnaeus, 1758
Longsnout pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Eastern Atlantic,
Mediterranean
h-waleananus S. auliscus
(Swain, 1882)
Barred pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Eastern Pacific
Stefanie, iNaturalist S. californiensis
Storer, 1845
Kelp pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Eastern Pacific
h-waleananus S. caribbaeus
Dawson, 1979
Caribbean pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Western Atlantic
h-waleananus S. carinatus
(Gilbert, 1892)
Cortez pipefish DD logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Eastern Central Pacific
h-waleananus S. dawsoni
(Herald, 1969)
DD logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Western Central Atlantic
h-waleananus S. euchrous
Fritzsche, 1980
Chocolate pipefish DD logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Eastern Pacific
h-waleananus S. exilis
(Osburn & Nichols, 1916)
Barcheek pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Eastern Pacific
flabellare223, iNaturalist S. floridae
(Jordan & Gilbert, 1882)
Dusky pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Western Atlantic
h-waleananus S. folletti
Herald, 1942
Southern pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Southwest Atlantic
cyric, iNaturalist S. fuscus
Storer, 1839
Northern pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Western Atlantic
h-waleananus S. insulae
Fritzsche, 1980
Guadalupe pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Eastern Central Pacific
Photo Scientific Name Common Name IUCN Red List Status Profile Range
Claire H., iNaturalist Syngnathus leptorhynchus
Girard, 1854
Bay pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Eastern Pacific
Kevin Bryant, iNaturalist S. louisianae
Günther, 1870
Chain pipefish DD logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Western Atlantic
h-waleananus S. macrobrachium
Fritzsche, 1980
Large-fin pipefish DD logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Southeast Pacific
h-waleananus S. macrophthalmus
Duncker, 1915
DD logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Red Sea
h-waleananus S. makaxi
Herald & Dawson, 1972
Yucatan pipefish DD logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Tropical
Western Atlantic
Sypel_u2 S. pelagicus Linneaus, 1758 Sargassum pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Western Atlantic
Syphl_u1 S. phlegon
Risso, 1827
Pelagic pipefish DD logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Mediterranean
10499_orig S. rostellatus
Nilsson, 1855
Nilsson's pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl NE Atlantic
h-waleananus S. safina
Paulus, 1992
DD logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Gulf of Aqaba
h-waleananus S. schlegeli
Kaup, 1856
Seaweed Pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl NW Pacific
h-waleananus S. schmidti
Popov, 1928
Black Sea Pelagic Pipefish DD logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Black Sea
h-waleananus S. scovelli
(Evermann & Kendall, 1896)
American Gulf Pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Western Atlantic
h-waleananus S. springeri
Herald, 1942
Bull Pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Western   Atlantic
h-waleananus S. taenionotus
Canestrini, 1871
Darkflank Pipefish DD logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Mediterranean and Black Sea
h-waleananus S. tenuirostris
Rathke, 1837
Narrow-snouted Pipefish DD logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Mediterranean, Adriatic,
Tyrrhenian, and Black Sea
h-waleananus S. typhle 
Linnaeus, 1758
Broadnose Pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Eastern Atlantic
h-waleananus S. variegatus
Pallas, 1814
Thickly Snouted Pipefish DD logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Black Sea,
Sea of Azov
h-waleananus S. watermeyeri
Smith, 1963
Estuarine Pipefish CR logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl South Africa
divemecressi, iNaturalist Trachyrhamphus bicoarctatus
(Bleeker, 1857)
Double-ended pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Indo-West Pacific
Blogie Robillo, iNaturalist T. longirostris
Kaup, 1856
Long-headed pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Indo-West Pacific
h-waleananus T. serratus
(Temminck & Schlegel, 1850)
Crested pipefish DD logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Indo-West Pacific
Glen Whisson, iNaturalist Urocampus carinirostris
Castelnau, 1872
Hiary pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Western Pacific
h-waleananus U. nanus
Günther, 1870
Barbed pipefish DD logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Northwest Pacific
Tony Strazzari, iNaturalist Vanacampus margaritifer
(Peters, 1868)
Mother-of-pearl pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Western Pacific
David Muirhead, iNaturalist V. phillipi
(Lucas, 1891)
Port Phillip pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Eastern Indian Ocean
David Muirhead, iNaturalist V. poecilolaemus
(Peters, 1868)
Australian Long-nosed pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Eastern Indian Ocean
David Muirhead, iNaturalist V. vercoi
(Waite & Hale, 1921)
Verco's pipefish LC logo_wikilogo_eolGBIFurl Eastern Indian Ocean

IUCN Red List key

EX = Extinct 
EW = Extinct in the Wild 
CR = Critically Endangered 
EN = Endangered 
VU = Vulnerable 
NT = Near Threatened 
LC = Least Concern 
DD = Data Deficient 
NE = Not Evaluated

(Click here for a full explanation of IUCN Red List categories.)

A note on ‘Data Deficient’ species: Species that are assessed as ‘Data Deficient’ are deemed to have insufficient information known about them to carry out a proper conservation assessment. Although such species are not assessed as threatened, we may find out that they in fact are, once enough data is obtained.


Banner image of leafy seadragon (Phycodurus eques) by Gaetano Gargiulo/Guylian Seahorses of the World